Volume 41

Costume, Number 41, 2007

Contents

 

Editorial

pp. v-v(1)

Saunders, Ann; Hayward, Maria

 

Front Cover: Honiton Lace Shawl

pp. vi-vi(1)

Saunders, Ann; Bazar, L.

 

The 'pair of straight bodies' and 'a pair of drawers' dating from 1603 which Clothe the Effigy of Queen Elizabeth I in Westminster Abbey

pp. 1-10(10) 


Arnold, Janet

Janet Arnold left this paper virtually complete at her death in 1998. It is an important piece of work to which she had given a substantial amount of time, but it does not fit with her plans for the forthcoming volume of Patterns of Fashion: The Cut and Construction of Linen Clothes for Men and Women. However, because of the rarity of the 'pair of straight bodies' and the need to make the fruits of her research available to others, it was decided to follow Janet's own practice with one-off items of importance and to submit the article to Costume.

Janet's full-scale pattern of the 'pair of straight bodies' has been scaled down to fit the page size of Costume, otherwise all the descriptions and queries are Janet's own, as are the drawings and photographs chosen to illustrate her text.

She continued to work on the project after she had written the first draft text; consequently two references have been added to clarify the role of John Colte, and to illustrate the silk materials used to cover the 'bodies' made for the queen by William Jones.

 

'To Cap it All': The Waterford Cap of Maintenance


pp. 11-25(15) 


Devitt, Cliodna

The article introduces the cap and letter dated the 30 April 1536 sent to the mayor and inhabitants of the City of Waterford by King Henry VIII, traces the history of caps of maintenance in England prior to that and points to its apparent uniqueness being officially styled as a cap of maintenance in a royal letter for use in mayoral ceremonial.

It also introduces William Wyse the bearer of the cap; educated at court and later Mayor of Waterford. It discusses Wyse and Waterford's loyalty during the Geraldine rebellion, how the cap was a token of the king's recognition of Waterford, and grants of land and a knighthood to Wyse. A record of the history and use of the cap is made, comparing it with contemporary royal caps of maintenance and caps/hats of fashion. Its assembly, materials and decoration are recorded and discussed.

 

Rainbow for a Reign: The Colours of a Queen's Wardrobe


pp. 26-44(19)


Lawson, Jane A.

This paper evaluates the wardrobe of Queen Elizabeth I on the basis of the colours that she wore. The author takes an often quoted comment, that Elizabeth I stated 'these are my colours' of black and white, and using evidence collected from the New Year's gift rolls provides details of over thirty different colours worn by the queen. The article examines the colours in groups to see if they were associated with a particular time in Elizabeth's life, a particular occasion or activity. The paper is supported by appendices providing a glossary of colour and dress terms, the years when particular colours were worn, how they were used, if they were used in combination with other colours and a list detailing the locations of the extant gift rolls.

 

The Merchant Taylors' Company of London under Elizabeth I: Tailors' Guild or Company of Merchants?


pp. 45-52(8)


Sleigh-Johnson, Nigel

Probably the most neglected aspect of the history of the guilds and livery companies of early modern London is the ubiquitous subordinate organisation known as the 'yeomanry' or 'bachelors' company'. Many narrative histories of individual companies make only passing reference to the existence of a yeomanry, and dismiss the organisations as generally transient and insignificant. Per contra, the yeomanry of at least one of the major City livery companies represented to an extraordinary degree a company within a company in the later sixteenth century.

By the time Elizabeth ascended the throne, the yeomanry body of the Merchant Taylors' Company had acquired effective responsibility for the vast majority of the Company's membership. To most contemporary and modern observers, the dazzling wealth, magnificent ceremonies and eminent members ? entitled to wear the prestigious livery gown of the Company, and generally drawn from the mercantile and civic ?lite ? were the most intriguing aspects of the history of the Merchant Taylors' Company. To the poor freemen below the livery these matters were of less significance.

Part I of this article examines briefly the origins, nature and functions of the sub-company. Part II explores the degree to which this body represented the continuation of the traditions of the medieval guild of London tailors and continued to embody the aspirations and interests of its artisan members.

 

A Fashionable Confinement: Whaleboned Stays and the Pregnant Woman


pp. 53-65(13)


Waterhouse, Harriet

For around 400 years fashion and decency required a neatly boned body, yet at the same time many women spent much of their adult lives pregnant. How women were able to dress would affect their role in public society, yet letters and diaries show little reduction in their daily activities. Evidence of what was actually worn is scarce, perhaps because the dilemma was not so great as we imagine ? whenever clothing is mentioned or depicted we see women wearing normal garments adapted with the addition of one or two items. Front-lacing stays could be adapted with stomachers, and some back-lacing ones exist with additional side-lacing; both styles would suit the pregnant and non-pregnant state alike. It is not until the nineteenth century that specific maternity corsets and clothing begin to appear, when general corset design and fashion styles became impossible to adapt without structural alteration.

 

'Over what crinoline should these charming jupons be worn?': Thomson's Survival Strategy During the Decline of Crinoline


pp. 66-82(17)


Windle, Lucy-Clare

Crinolines were arguably the first industrial fashion, mass-produced in factories and using the latest steel-making techniques. This article hypothesises on the strategies of leading manufacturer W. S. Thomson, particularly as the crinoline subsided out of fashion during 1866?74. Thomson attracted women with new products such as the batswing skirt, and sold them a narrowed crinoline as an integral part of the look. Thomson advertised regularly in The Englishwoman's Domestic Magazine during this time, and was frequently recommended in the editorial columns. This article constructs a narrative of events based on a single primary source, and poses the questions raised by that source.

 

The Dress Must Be White, and Perfectly Plain and Simple: Confirmation and First Communion Dress, 1850-2000


pp. 83-98(16)


Jarvis, Anthea

The basis for this article was a paper given at the Annual Symposium of the Costume Society in Norwich in 1998, on the theme of religious dress. It has been expanded with further research.

This article traces the history and development of special dress worn for the sacraments of confirmation and first communion in the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. Before the 1850s no special dress was required; the growth of the fashion for increasingly elaborate white dresses and veils post-1850 seems to have been fostered by the growing affluence of the middle classes and by the fashion press. Special dress for Anglican confirmation declined in popularity in the later twentieth century, while dress for Catholic first communion, in contrast, has become, like dress for weddings, an occasion for an orgy of consumerism.

 

The Wearing of the Red: The Redcoat and the British Brand

pp. 99-104(6)


Arch, Nigel

As a concept, the idea of product branding offers insights into the history of uniform in Britain. The creation of a brand, by which a product is understood and recognised by its name, fits the cultural history of the red coat, that part of his uniform by which the British infantryman was known for over three hundred years.

While the earliest references to the redcoat in this context occur in the sixteenth century, it is really from the eighteenth century onwards that the term becomes widely employed to denote the soldier. However, a review of royal portraiture in Britain from the late seventeenth century onwards also reveals that monarchs used the red coat as a way of uniting the ideals of patriotism with the monarch ? a device that was particularly important for the Hanoverian dynasty.

Both literature and the visual arts helped identify the red coat as a synonym for the soldier. Numerous references may be adduced, from Jane Austen writing of polite society, to Rudyard Kipling's Tommy. Lady Elizabeth Butler was perhaps the most famous artist to depict red-coated heroes in battles, which marked the defence or development of the Empire.

 

'A clinging Liberty tea-gown instead of a magenta satin': The Colour Red in ArtisticDress by Liberty & Co.


pp. 105-110(6) 
Buruma, Anna

As a concept, the idea of product branding offers insights into the history of uniform in Britain. The creation of a brand, by which a product is understood and recognised by its name, fits the cultural history of the red coat, that part of his uniform by which the British infantryman was known for over three hundred years.

While the earliest references to the redcoat in this context occur in the sixteenth century, it is really from the eighteenth century onwards that the term becomes widely employed to denote the soldier. However, a review of royal portraiture in Britain from the late seventeenth century onwards also reveals that monarchs used the red coat as a way of uniting the ideals of patriotism with the monarch ? a device that was particularly important for the Hanoverian dynasty.

Both literature and the visual arts helped identify the red coat as a synonym for the soldier. Numerous references may be adduced, from Jane Austen writing of polite society, to Rudyard Kipling's Tommy. Lady Elizabeth Butler was perhaps the most famous artist to depict red-coated heroes in battles, which marked the defence or development of the Empire.

 

Modern Fashions for Modern Women: The Evolution of New York Sportswear in the 1930s


pp. 111-125(15)


Arnold, Rebecca

This article addresses questions about the use of strong colours, particularly red, in aesthetic fashions of the late nineteenth century. Contrary to our perception of the Aesthetic Movement, there are actually images, surviving textile patterns and literature which show that strong reds were used in dress, despite the fact that there appear to be no surviving Liberty garments in these colours. Rather than because of a disdain for cheap dyes, it is due rather to practical matters: ideas about the unhealthy aspects of certain dyes and the unreliability of their colour fastness seem stronger than class-bound feelings of contempt.

 

Chained Melody, or Putting Paco Rabanne in his Place


pp. 126-136(11)


Harden, Rosemary

This article aims to establish the significance and diversity of sportswear styles designed and manufactured in New York during the 1930s. It will assert that the 1930s was a crucial period in New York sportswear's evolution. This decade tends to be overlooked by fashion historians, who either make generalisations about American fashion in the 1930s or focus on developments in the 1940s. This article will demonstrate that the Depression era was central to sportswear's emergence as a key form of affordable, mass-produced clothing, which comprised simple, interchangeable garments that could be worn in a variety of settings.

This article will establish the importance of the 1930s as a period when New York sportswear was crystallised as a design and marketing ideal. This was due to both the economic pressures of the 1930s, which made cheaper mass-produced clothing more appealing, and to shifts within the fashion industry, which saw more co-ordinated attempts to promote indigenous design.

Sportswear will be discussed in terms of three key categories: active sportswear, town and country wear and resort wear. Surviving dress from American and British collections will be analysed to demonstrate the importance of these categories, and the ways in which they came to form an ideal of Americanness through their design aesthetic, as well as the way they were advertised.

Garments by manufacturers such as Davidow, and designers such as Clare Potter, will be contrasted with examples from London and Paris to show how New York was gradually to evolve its own distinct styles, which would in the following decade be characterised by the term the 'American Look'. The clean lines and machine aesthetic of this style were mythologised as an expression of American national identity ? as practical, rational and authentic.

As the 1930s wore on, New York sportswear was increasingly linked to modern lifestyles, and thus was portrayed as ideal for women who were active, whether as college girls, housewives, career women, or through travel. The notion of femininity that it evoked linked to white, middle-class ideals, and existing assumptions about American fashion's 'democratic' approach that eschewed the ?litism of European fashion therefore need to be questioned.

 

New and Recent Books

pp. 137-140(4)

 

Selective List of Articles from Periodicals Published in 2006

pp. 141-146(6)

 

Reviews

pp. 147-176(30)

 

Exhibitions

pp. 177-184(8)

 

Study Day: Reconstructing '60s Fashion

pp. 185-187(3)

 

Obituary

pp. 188-188(1)

Thursfield, Sarah

 

Notes and Queries

pp. 189-193(5)

 

The Costume Society Awards

pp. 194-202(9)

 

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